Hepatitis A and B

Twinrix: Combination vaccine with Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B

Hepatitis A & B

Twinrix is the name of the vaccine that provides protection against both hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is also called infectious hepatitis type A. It is a viral infection that infects the liver.

Where are you at risk of becoming infected with Hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is most often transmitted via food contaminated with faeces.

Among other things, hepatitis A can be transmitted via contaminated food or drinking water, and you are particularly exposed to hepatitis A infection if you are in a part of the world where hygiene may be less good. 

Hepatitis A can also be transmitted through sexual contact, primarily in the form of anal sex.

In general, a person who has hepatitis A is most contagious at the beginning of the disease, and you can be contagious before the onset of symptoms. 

In addition, oysters, clams and other shellfish harvested in water contaminated with sewage may also contain the hepatitis A virus. You can thus become infected with hepatitis A if you eat raw shellfish. Viruses are destroyed by heat treatment. In Denmark, outbreaks of hepatitis A have been seen after consumption of contaminated fruit and fresh berries.

Which areas are found Hepatitis A | Contagious Hepatitis?

Most cases of hepatitis A occur during travel to countries in Africa, South America and Asia. 

What symptoms can be seen in infection with Hepatitis A?

Most people, and especially children who get Hepatitis A, often have a mild course of the disease with symptoms such as:

  • nausea

  • fever

  • abdominal pains

  • joint pain

  • diarrhea

  • fatigue

Some may develop more pronounced symptoms such as:

  • jaundice (yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes)

  • dark urine

  • light stools

On average, the incubation period (the time from infection to the appearance of symptoms) is 28 days.

Age is important for whether you develop symptoms. Most children under the age of five do not develop symptoms of hepatitis A, while most adults over the age of 50 are at greater risk of developing symptoms and severe disease.

After the illness with hepatitis A is over, you are immune for life.

What treatment is available for Hepatitis A?

There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A infection. 

How is Hepatitis A prevented?

The most effective prevention of hepatitis A is vaccination. 

How do you get vaccinated against Hepatitis A?

The hepatitis A vaccine protects against hepatitis A. It lasts for at least 30 years after 2 doses. The second vaccination must be given at least six months after the first vaccination. 

The first dose can be given up to departure and provides almost 100% protection for five years for adults.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a potentially serious inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B is transmitted via secretions/blood or sexual contact. Typical hepatitis B symptoms can be jaundice and fever, but some do not experience symptoms in the acute phase.


Where are you at risk of becoming infected with Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is highly contagious and spreads when infected blood, semen and other secretions are transferred to a person who has not had the disease or is vaccinated. 

Hepatitis B can infect:

  • via blood

  • by sexual contact with an infected person

  • by using used syringes and needles

  • via mother to child during birth

Hepatitis B is contagious does not via food, water, shared use of cutlery, hugs and kisses, holding hands, coughing or sneezing. 

In which areas is Hepatitis B found?

There is a worldwide risk of hepatitis B worldwide. Countries with a high risk of hepatitis B are found especially in Asia, Greenland, Africa and South America.

What are the symptoms of Hepatitis B?

Approximately 70% of adults and 90% of children under the age of five experience no symptoms of hepatitis B infection. 

Symptoms of the infection can be:

  • fever

  • fatigue

  • reduced appetite

  • weight loss 

  • abdominal pains

  • joint pain 

Approximately 20% of those infected with hepatitis B develop jaundice, light stools and dark urine.

Hepatitis B can develop into actual liver failure, and this occurs in around 1% of those infected.

The incubation period (time from infection to symptom development) one to six months. 

Hepatitis B symptoms disappear after up to three months, but some may experience prolonged fatigue. 

There is ririko to develop chronic carrier state of hepatitis B, which is a frequent cause of liver cancer.

What treatment is available for Hepatitis B?

There is no specific treatment for hepatitis B. If a serious course develops, hospitalization is necessary.

How is Hepatitis B prevented?

You can reduce your risk of getting hepatitis B by getting vaccinated, which provides lifelong protection.

Good advice to avoid hepatitis B during your trip to risk areas is:

  • avoid getting tattoos and piercings

  • avoid used razor blades and scrapers

  • safe sex

Vaccination is always recommended for persons with an occupational risk of infection. For people living in a household with hepatitis B infected people. Also MSM.


How do you get vaccinated against Hepatitis B?

The duration of the hepatitis B vaccine is lifelong, and consists of three doses. The first two doses must be given 28 days apart, after which you are sufficiently protected for your trip. 

The third dose must be given no earlier than five months after the second vaccination. After three doses, you are protected against hepatitis b for the rest of your life. 

The first dose of hepatitis B is given at least 28 days before departure. There is a fast program that can be given up to 21 days before departure.