COVID-19 Vaccination

COVID-19 kan forebygges ved vaccination.

We have been following the development of the upcoming vaccines against COVID-19 since the spring of 2020. 

There are currently three main types of COVID-19 vaccines, of which the mRNA vaccine is the only one that is approved - and currently in use in Denmark.

Below is a description of how the different types of vaccine work so that our immune system can recognize and protect us from Sars-Cov-2, which causes COVID-19. T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are the cells used by the immune system to fight viruses. 

COVID-19 is potentially a serious disease and vaccination is far preferable even if you are young. The mortality rate for COVID-19 is approx. 0.75% for DK. It is 1 in every 133 infected (large age gradient). But even for 35-44 year olds, there is a 1.5 x annual increased risk of dying from COVID-19. Small risk in absolute terms, but high relatively speaking.

Dertil tyder det med nye smitsomme varianter af SARS-CoV-2 til, at vi bør have immuniseret en ganske høj del af befolkningen (+ 90%), for at opnå tilstrækkelig dækning i samfundet – særligt om vinteren.

Typer af vacciner:

mRNA Vaccines

Contains material from the virus that causes COVID-19, which gives our cells instructions on how to make a harmless protein that is unique to the virus. Once our cells have made copies of the protein, they destroy the genetic material from the vaccine. Our bodies recognize that the protein should not be there and build T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, remembering how to fight the virus that causes COVID-19 if we become infected.

Vaccines purchased for Denmark based on this technique:

Vector Vaccines

Contains an attenuated version of a live virus - just another virus (adenovirus) other than the one that causes COVID-19 - but which has genetic material from the virus that causes COVID-19 inserted into it (this is called a viral vector). Once the viral vector is inside our cells, the genetic material instructs cells to produce a protein unique to the virus that causes COVID-19. Using these instructions, our cells make copies of the protein. The immune system then produces so-called T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, which remember how to fight that virus if we become infected in the future.

Vaccines purchased for Denmark based on this technique:

Protein Subunit Vaccines / Recombinant Protein Vaccines

Contains harmless parts (proteins) of the virus that cause COVID-19 instead of the whole virus. Once we are vaccinated, our immune system detects that the proteins do not belong in the body and begins to produce T lymphocytes and antibodies. If we get infected with Sars-Cov-2, the memory cells will recognize and fight the virus.

Vaccines purchased for Denmark based on this technique:

  • GSK / Sanofi (delayed)

Indtil videre er der ikke rapporteret om alvorlige bivirkninger til mRNA vaccinerne, hos de grupper man har valgt at inkludere i forsøgene. Allergi kan ses efter vaccination, og med korrekt og hurtig indsats kan dette hurtigt behandles. 

De hyppigste bivirkninger kan findes her i skemaet – bemærk, at de der blev behandlet med saltvand (placebo) som kontrolgruppe også oplevede bivirkninger. Sammenlign selv: Here

It is still unclear how long the coverage will last. 

The effect of vaccination is well illustrated by the figure below - the red curve shows the infection among the unvaccinated, the blue among the vaccinated: